The Five Competitive Forces That Shape Strategy

By Brian Lemay 100 comments

>>THOMAS STEWART: I am Tom Stewart, Editor
and Managing Director of the Harvard Business Review. Our guest today is Michael Porter,
Professor at Harvard University and Head of the Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness.
He is the author of the forthcoming HBR article, “The Five Competitive Forces That Shape
Strategy”. A reaffirmation, update, and extension of his groundbreaking 1979 article
“How Competitive Forces Shape Strategy”. Mike, thanks for joining the program. To start,
let us remind our viewers of what the five competitive forces are.>>MICHAEL PORTER: Well Tom, the basic idea
of the competitive forces starts with the notion that competition is often looked at
too narrowly by managers, and the five forces say that, yes you are competing with your
direct competitors, but you are also in a fight for profits with a broader extended
set of competitors, customers who have bargaining powers, suppliers who can have bargaining
power, new entrants who might come in and kind of grab a piece of the action, and substitute
products or services that essentially place a constraint or a cap on your profitability
and growth. So the five forces is kind of a holistic way
of looking at any industry and understanding the structural underlying drivers of profitability
and competence.>>STEWART: So I use this to think about my
rival makes it difficult for me. The threat of substitutes means I cannot overcharge.
The threat of new entrants’ means I cannot overcharge.>>PORTER: Right.>>STEWART: The same thing with the buyers
and suppliers.>>PORTER: The buyers and suppliers, and there
is underlying drivers of each of those forces that the model really sort of unveils and
then you can actually apply this. Every industry is different. Every industry will have a different
set of economic fundamentals, but the five forces help you hone in on, first of all,
what is really causing profitability in the industry. What are the trends that are most
likely to be significant in changing the game in the industry? Where are the constraints,
which if you can relax, it might allow you to find a really strong competitive position?>>STEWART: So how would you apply this analysis
to an industry? Airlines for example.>>PORTER: Airlines is a great industry. Actually
you will see in the article or you have seen in the article that there is a chart that
compares profitability of industries, and airlines, I think has been on the bottom of
that list for decades. It is among the least profitable industries known to man, and the
five forces really allow you very quickly to understand why. I mean, let us just go
around the chart. The nature of rivalry is incredibly intense and it is almost exclusively
unpriced. It has been very hard to differentiate, get the customer to wait even an extra two
or three minutes for another flight if they can get on the flight with a cheaper price.
So there has been a very intense price competition, low barriers to entry. Constant stream of
new airlines coming into the industry despite the fact that probability is low. It always
puzzles me.>>STEWART: Low barriers to entry because
you can rent a plane, you do not have to buy them.>>PORTER: You can rent a plane. You can lease
a gate. It is all generic technology. You can start with one flight between two city
pairs. There is no real need to have a whole network in the beginning, and yet, people
keep coming in. I think it is just one of those “sexy” industries. It is a great example
of how sexiness or coolness or hotness or cheapness has nothing to do with industry
profitability. The underlying structure is what drives profitability. Yeah, the customer
is very fickle and price sensitive. Suppliers of aircraft and aircraft engines and even
aircraft gates at airports now have a lot of clout. They can bargain away most of the
profits. GE, and Rolls-Royce, and Airbus, and Boeing make a lot more money than Airlines.
They get most of the profit. And then of course, there is always the substitute of getting
on the train or driving your car or shipping your goods by air and that sets kind of kept
the consumer.>>STEWART: You have powerful suppliers of
labor too. That is another powerful supplier.>>PORTER: Right, exactly. There is a great
case where you have unionized labor. Unlike other industries, in this industry particularly
with the pilots, the labor can literally shut you down, and there is no way around them.
So, it is an industry where there are spurts of what you might call mediocre profitability
punctuated by long periods of terrible profitability.>>STEWART: So everyone of the five forces
is very strong in that industry and you could take another industry where the five forces
are relatively benign.>>PORTER: Right, like soft drinks. I mean,
soft drinks have been a license to mint money and again, it is the opposite kind of analysis.
When I talk with students, we kind of joke around, there are five-star industries where
all the forces are attractive like soft drinks. There are zero-star industries where all the
forces are unfavorable like airlines and we are always trying to understand, okay, what
is the configuration of underlying economic drivers that is going to really shape the
profit potential of this industry and then armed with that insight, what do I do about
it? How do I try to relax the constraint that is holding back industry profitability? How
can I position myself to kind of insulate from some of the gales, gale winds of those
forces? Those implications of the five forces are something that this new article has developed
in much more detail.>>STEWART: You conceived this framework nearly
three decades ago and it has been the most extensively used both in management scholarship
and management practice of any strategy framework, and it changed the definition of strategy
in a lot of ways. In these three decades, what have you learned? What have you learned
about the application of these ideas in the real world of business?>>PORTER: Well, the wonderful thing of course
we learned is that these concepts can be applied to literally any, any industry, to product,
to service, high-tech, low-tech, emerging economies, developed economies. Indeed, what
one of the powers of the framework is it helps you get avoid getting trapped or tricked by
the latest trend or the latest technological sensation, and really allows you to focus
on the underlying fundamentals. The internet is a good example. We got very, very confused
by the internet because people saw the internet as a force as supposed to really enabling
technology that might or might not impact the underlying structure of the industry. So I think one thing I have learned is the
framework is very, very robust, but I have also learned that there is a lot of confusion
and complexity in actually applying the framework in actual practice and we tried to clear as
many of those areas up as we could in this new article. For example, how to think about
rivalry? How do we understand when rivalry is really positive-sum, which allows many
companies to do well? When does rivalry become really zero-sum, where everybody is kind of
dragged down into a destructive battle that you cannot win.>>STEWART: Well, I can understand zero-sum.
I mean, if we get in a price war, the only one who wins is the consumer, which is nice
if you are a consumer.>>PORTER: Yeah.>>STEWART: But what do you mean by positive-sum
competition?>>PORTER: Well, the trouble with the zero-sum
competition is then the consumer gets a little price, but they really got no choice, and
a positive-sum competition is where companies can compete on different attributes, services,
features, customer support, that is actually relevant to particular groups of customers.
The most really positive-sum competition is where companies are really competing on different
things in order to meet the needs of different segment.>>STEWART: So we are growing the pie and
there is a piece for each of us.>>PORTER: There is a piece for each of us.
In fact, one of the things we talked about in the new article, one of the things I did
in the new article that we really probably did not have the experience to do so many
years ago was really talk a lot about the implications. If this is the way competition
works, what do you do about it? One of them is might be in some industries rather than
go for market share against your rivals, you might be much better off just really expanding
the pie, expanding the whole profit pool of the industry. That may be the best way for
a market leader to actually improve their circumstances rather than to trigger a destructive
battle with their head-to-head rival.>>STEWART: How should a company get started
using the five forces framework? You are working your strategy and you decide, “This really
works for me.” How do you begin?>>PORTER: Well, I think industry analysis
and looking at the competitive environment is of course, probably the starting basic
discipline of any strategy formulation process. If you do not know what your industry looks
like, if you do not know how it is changing, if you do not know what the drivers or competition
are, strategy is going to be marginally useful, if not destructive. So we got to start with
industry analysis figuring out what your industry is and drawing the right boundaries.>>STEWART: That is not always easy.>>PORTER: It is not always easy. We have
added a box in this new article, which really addresses that question because I encountered
so many companies that struggled with industry definition, identifying really what the industry
structure is in your particular industry. And then there is another thing that a lot
of managers do. They kind of go through the industry analysis and they say, “Okay. This
is good, this is bad. This is good, this is bad.” So this is an attractive industry or
unattractive industry, but of course the real question is how is that industry changing? Some have believed and taken the five forces
as really a static snapshot, but of course the five forces give you the tools for understanding
the dynamics and where is that industry structure changing? How are buyers and suppliers and
substitutes and potential entry evolving? And then what implications does that hold
for your strategy? How do you position yourself to find that spot within the industry where
you can command a really good profit given the five forces? How can you maybe reshape
the nature of the industry structure? We have got some great new examples that are very,
very contemporary in this article that I think will help the manager community and the investor
community really understand the application of this.>>STEWART: Sometimes when people think about
strategy, they think about a group of people, maybe from a management consulting firm or
maybe on the 33rd floor of the building, whatever it is, but it is sort of elite strategy priesthood
that goes in and does this. They are almost divorced from the rest of the management of
the company, the 99% of the other people working in the company. How can a strategy become
part of the day-to-day life of a working stiff manager in a company? How do you apply this
framework, this thinking? How do you use it?>>PORTER: Well, we think that this way of
looking at an industry needs to be very, very broadly understood in the organization. The
thing about it is that managers, even rank and file employees, it is intuitive. People
understand. We have these customers, we have these suppliers, we are struggling with them
everyday. They are trying to get a better deal, we are trying to get a better deal. So intuitively, I think this is a way of helping
people sort of step back from all the excruciating little details that characterize any business
and say, “What is really important here?” And then of course we have learned that strategy
is completely useless, again, unless the results of the strategy process, the position that
you choose to occupy, the way you are going to drive your company is well understood quite
broadly because the number one purpose of strategy is alignment. It is really to get
all the people in the organization, making good choices, reinforcing each other’s choices
because everybody is pursuing a common value proposition or common way of gaining competitive
advantage. I remember when I wrote this article, there
were many people who believed that strategy documents should be locked in the safe at
night and should not be made available to the rank and file. There was a concern that
some competitor would find some secret. Well, we have actually learned now that it is the
opposite. Your employees got to know your strategy, your channels have to know your
strategy, your suppliers have to know your strategy.>>STEWART: Your competitors probably knew
it already.>>PORTER: Well, and frankly, again the competition
is not zero-sum. If every company finds a unique need that it can set out to meet, if
it tries to deliver something different than its rivals, multiple rivals can be successful.
If your competitors can understand what you stand for and what you are committed to, maybe
they will make a different choice, rather than get dragged into this kind of mindless
price wars that we see in so many industries.>>STEWART: The five forces that shape strategy
have been around for 30 years, they are going to be around for, well, they have been around
long before you wrote about it.>>PORTER: That is right.>>STEWART: They have been around as long
as business has been around. They are going to be around as long as business is around.
The new article is just fabulous. Thank you so much.>>PORTER: Thank you. Well, I am looking forward
to kind of getting another surge of feedback from the practitioners and we will keep learning.>>STEWART: Thanks.>>PORTER: Thanks Tom.


Carlo Jose

Jun 6, 2016, 12:15 am Reply

I have his two books – Competitive Strategies and Competitive Advantage… very useful in my life in business. Unfortunately, my senior managers and company owners don't read these types of books, so there goes the business that they manage.


Aug 8, 2016, 2:38 pm Reply

Good video on Michael Porter's notion of The Five Competitive Forces, we also like his notion of Creating Shared Value, here's our take on this –


Aug 8, 2016, 1:45 pm Reply

A great video which explains the basics of this model quite comprehensively. Although this framework is really robust in many cases, it does fail when a disruptive innovation comes into play. When applying this model a consultant or marketing manager should not only take the current substitutions of the market but should also be aware of disruptive innovations coming from new markets. This mistake has led to many MNE's repelling a certain business area because of their unawareness of developments in other industries.

Akash Gaikwad

Aug 8, 2016, 2:44 pm Reply

A nice video of Michael Porter's Five Competitive Forces, it is beneficial to increasing the knowledge about strategy.

Tahia Alam

Sep 9, 2016, 4:32 pm Reply

This was for my management class 😀

Nicole Mckee

Sep 9, 2016, 10:26 pm Reply

Management class!!!

Roddy Eskew

Sep 9, 2016, 12:57 pm Reply

Hi Furman


Sep 9, 2016, 4:06 pm Reply

great questions

Ruki Kar

Sep 9, 2016, 6:50 pm Reply

Anyone knows the related article that they are talking about?


Oct 10, 2016, 2:52 pm Reply

thank you very much for all information. I need how to overtake the best competitors on the global insurance market.

fortune mutete

Oct 10, 2016, 3:44 am Reply

Excellent video that clarifies application of the five forces in real business environment.

Carlos M

Oct 10, 2016, 11:17 am Reply

ICADE me trajo aquí

Shahzad Badvi

Oct 10, 2016, 12:06 pm Reply

CPA squad checking in

Jack Fitt

Oct 10, 2016, 2:23 am Reply

Nice video – If you love vlogs then you should subscribe to my channel!

Fleura Shiyanova

Oct 10, 2016, 8:31 pm Reply

Hello from Management & Org. Class ?

Fleura Shiyanova

Oct 10, 2016, 8:31 pm Reply

Hello from Management & Org. Class 🙂

Gladys .Fright

Oct 10, 2016, 11:01 pm Reply

Drucker's face was the tease. shame on u

Mahmoud Alqabandi

Oct 10, 2016, 6:18 pm Reply

محد طشرنا غيرك بالامتحان
يا بورتر

Saad Sohail

Nov 11, 2016, 5:46 pm Reply

Good, we take many information to incorporate during our MBA programmed

Fred Oginga

Nov 11, 2016, 8:28 pm Reply

So the guy's still alive… damn you genius. The five forces are really useful


Dec 12, 2016, 1:10 am Reply

Sure, you can profit from the inconveniences your business itself creates by offering features to customers who pay to get around them.  My cat does that with the ball she plays with.  The computer industry does that and the airline industry does that.  Its just fundamentally dishonest, but dishonesty is inherent in being successful in business if only because you've stolen jobs away your competitors families and food from their tables to pay executives golden parachutes like Carrier did.  Competition should be shameful but ignoring shame is a skill in itself. Like what George Burns said about sincerity can be said for ignoring shame.


Dec 12, 2016, 1:15 am Reply

This shit is just common knowledge if you need to resort to it.

Mrs. Fine

Jan 1, 2017, 4:45 am Reply

Reviewing for one of our Masters in Information Assurance courses…great understanding!

Peter Tibbetts

Jan 1, 2017, 5:02 pm Reply

Where could I access the article talked about throughout this video?

Arif Poonwassie

Jan 1, 2017, 7:35 pm Reply



Mar 3, 2017, 2:15 pm Reply

Two people telling each other how great they are… and a little about strategy. Mintzberg seems much more realistic and educational in interviews. It looks like Porter wants to proof, especially to himself, how amazing his 5 forces model is.
( don't get me wrong, it's a great tool but it isn't gonna change the world )

Walt Jenkins

Mar 3, 2017, 9:43 pm Reply

wow. it took a PHD to figure this out??

Henryk Jankowski

Apr 4, 2017, 4:45 am Reply

Low barriers to entry in the airline industry? I respect his work, but I'm going to disagree with Michael Porter on this one. The capital requirement in the airline industry is much higher than he describes. One cannot simply just rent a plane and start up an airline business. The technology is far from generic, and pilots are expensive hires if you yourself don't have a pilot's license. Strict government regulations make it even more difficult to enter the industry… Don't get me wrong, the five-forces model is a great tool, but his analysis of the airline industry is flawed.


Apr 4, 2017, 11:40 pm Reply

Low barrier to entry for airlines industry. These guys lost me right there.

Solom Hegazy

May 5, 2017, 6:26 pm Reply

WHO SAYS: Relatively Benign!!!!!!

Andrew Speed

May 5, 2017, 7:49 pm Reply

The article to which this discussion relates is in the January 2008 issue of Harvard Business Review. Reprint R0801E

Aselle Abigo

May 5, 2017, 12:38 pm Reply

Makes sense because most times we just jump into business with excitement and sentiments. Look before you leap.

Yessonguiyewele Soro

May 5, 2017, 12:44 am Reply

tres bien

Mathias Kirkegaard

Jul 7, 2017, 1:41 pm Reply

How are the Five Forces NOT static??? The theory in no way helps "predict the future"…

Glen Elkin

Aug 8, 2017, 11:59 am Reply

Looks 60, sounds 20.


Sep 9, 2017, 12:45 am Reply

Who's here thanks to Prof. Aks???

Lola Staples

Sep 9, 2017, 9:32 pm Reply

Competitive forces and strategies shape the very foundation of business principles. The model can be applied to every business environment that I have encountered. The principles are priceless. Students seem to enjoy learning these concepts.

Chuck Norris

Sep 9, 2017, 8:47 pm Reply

stop complaining about 240p and terrible sound, this video was uploaded over 9 years ago. Standards were lower back then.


Oct 10, 2017, 8:45 pm Reply

excellent analysis of the competitive forces !

FIGO369 xx

Oct 10, 2017, 3:27 pm Reply

ZHAW Rules

Mario Arce

Oct 10, 2017, 10:47 pm Reply

nmms yo lo ocupo en español :v

Pronsias Mac Giolla Phadraig

Nov 11, 2017, 10:37 am Reply

As true today as it was 30 years ago.

Business Strategies & Insights

Dec 12, 2017, 9:24 pm Reply

Great info—thanks for sharing!

Malcolm Ewan

Dec 12, 2017, 4:22 pm Reply

Eh, excuse me. What about the more than £1bn profit that easyjet, ryanair, BA, emirates etc. made in 2016? So much for the airline industry being one of the least profitable known to man.

Leonore Alaniz

Dec 12, 2017, 4:25 am Reply

His stuck in the 70's. His fixation on competitions prolongs a false premise: That managing competitions is the ticket to profitability, when in reality CO-operation among parties drive economic engines.

Francisco Cornejo

Dec 12, 2017, 2:15 pm Reply

The only way to stay ahead of the curve in the next decade (as an Entrepreneur) is to become an innovator. Augmented Reality will be the next wave of technological innovation that will surely disrupt all industries alike. DON'T BECOME THE VICTIM — Start creating an Augmented Reality business strategy NOW, before your competitor takes advantage –


Jan 1, 2018, 3:34 am Reply

So stay away from sexy industries. Ok, time to go write my test.

Shawn Afshar

Feb 2, 2018, 3:35 am Reply

Videos like

Francisco Cornejo

Feb 2, 2018, 2:17 pm Reply

The only way to stay ahead of the curve in the next decade (as an Entrepreneur) is to become an innovator. Augmented Reality will be the next wave of technological innovation that will surely disrupt all industries alike. DON'T BECOME THE VICTIM — Start creating an Augmented Reality business strategy NOW, before your competitor takes advantage –


Mar 3, 2018, 9:01 pm Reply

If you are reading this.. I am already dead. Ron John as officially mutilated me. May the game continue.

Strategic Business & IT Services

Mar 3, 2018, 11:50 am Reply

Brilliant video that clarifies application of the five forces in actual business environment.

Hadley Barton

Mar 3, 2018, 9:34 pm Reply

thanks mike


Mar 3, 2018, 8:49 pm Reply

Pretty good interview. Old but pretty good.

Ishwor Bhusal

Apr 4, 2018, 12:47 am Reply

Five forces which definitely is acceptable and going to be accepted for longer. This includes basically for the start ups which literally need to understand those forces which makes the business strategy better and competitive and delivers higher value proposition.

Dave Games Room

Apr 4, 2018, 8:01 am Reply

Hi All, check out my digital business strategy products. You will be amazed on how much you can earn while working at home.

Esra Baykal

Apr 4, 2018, 6:56 pm Reply

He designed the whole strategy framework which all the world business' are using and he just finishes his speech with " we keep learning" Damn it!


Apr 4, 2018, 3:15 pm Reply

시험에 이거 나온데요~


Apr 4, 2018, 6:04 pm Reply

I've written about this guy in so many assignments at Uni, had no idea he would talk like that. What a ledge!

Kai Bader

May 5, 2018, 6:46 pm Reply

Thanks for sharing this with us!

Gregory Foltyn

May 5, 2018, 10:45 am Reply

I could listen to him my whole life

Aaron Rampersad

Jun 6, 2018, 12:29 am Reply

But you need to go in deep in this topic…

Aaron Rampersad

Jun 6, 2018, 12:30 am Reply

Um Caribbean airlines getting new airplanes from China talk about that…

Aaron Rampersad

Jun 6, 2018, 12:32 am Reply

I'm price sensitive about WiFi phones vs robbery phones

Aaron Rampersad

Jun 6, 2018, 12:33 am Reply

Soft drink is attractive…

The Companies Expert

Jun 6, 2018, 5:53 am Reply

Nice video on strategy

Abdelkader Haddag

Jul 7, 2018, 11:26 pm Reply

He is the genius who reshaped my concepts about competition analysis.

akif levent

Jul 7, 2018, 1:38 pm Reply

Mevcut iş geliştirmede stratejiyi belirlemeye yarayan 5 rekabetçi kuvvet şu şekilde;

(1) Müşterilerin pazarlık gücü ->
(2) Tedarikçilerin pazarlık gücü ->
(3) Yeni girenlerin (rakiplerin) tehdidi ->
(4) Yerini alan ürün veya hizmet tehditi ->
(5) Rakipler arasındaki rekabet (Döngü)

samuel innyavan kanikairaj

Aug 8, 2018, 3:35 pm Reply

What a profound session on real business world scenarios, times are changing but fundamentals are the key to progression 5 Forces are those factors.


Sep 9, 2018, 7:08 pm Reply

so how do you negate the power of suppliers and the power of customers

Shane Sweeting

Sep 9, 2018, 1:48 am Reply

The article being mentioned here is actually the 3 assigned reading in my Strategy course for the Executive MBA program – 10 years after it was published. I think Porter knows his stuff!

Vivek Shingada

Oct 10, 2018, 11:17 pm Reply

Incoming business dad joke at 12:08

Josh B

Oct 10, 2018, 7:23 pm Reply

wish this was in a resolution greater than 240p

maria cabredo

Oct 10, 2018, 6:11 am Reply

cada día me esfuerzo para entender el ingles ,no entiendo me dificultad mucho mis clases son en ingles ,precisamente los temas son the theories portes 5 forces,,,algún consejito para entender el ingles?

Frank Yi

Oct 10, 2018, 7:35 pm Reply

i love michael porter!

Sisa Dingiswayo

Oct 10, 2018, 8:16 am Reply

@Siya hope we pass this test??????


Oct 10, 2018, 12:22 am Reply

Positive sum ! ?

Marc Leon

Nov 11, 2018, 11:39 pm Reply

Excellent questions by the interviewer. He gets right to the meat and potatoes.

Ultimate games

Nov 11, 2018, 12:49 am Reply

This guy created the Ray Gun?

Yimeng Ren

Dec 12, 2018, 6:06 am Reply

coming from fim335 final review~

Vincent Kasanga

Dec 12, 2018, 1:24 pm Reply

business has changed every little thing under the sun

Vivian Zheng

Jan 1, 2019, 12:13 pm Reply

Like Poter

Toby Robinson

Jan 1, 2019, 12:27 am Reply

Low barriers to entry in the airline industry? I respect his work but this guy must be having a laugh.


Jan 1, 2019, 2:42 pm Reply

Does anybody know where I can find the article where he keeps referring to?

Johnny Meringues

Feb 2, 2019, 10:27 am Reply

I pour concrete for a living and even I found this extremely useful.

T. Thomas

Feb 2, 2019, 10:05 am Reply

Any model where you just focus on the customer ?

KommentarSpaltenKrieger 129394032

Feb 2, 2019, 2:56 pm Reply

Man, knowing to articulate in such a graphic and yet precise manner is a hell of a trait. Makes it really interesting to listen to this.

Lafaroius Samtenito

Feb 2, 2019, 3:33 pm Reply

He reminds me of Richard Dawkins


Mar 3, 2019, 7:50 pm Reply

My favorite analytical tool. Wow!

Alvin Balducci

Mar 3, 2019, 5:32 pm Reply

how many airlines have gone bust since this video?

Kevin Queen

Apr 4, 2019, 11:42 am Reply

A link to the article would have been fantastic

Jeannette Figueroa

Apr 4, 2019, 2:01 am Reply

An important model to apply. Thanks for the interview.

Feike Leemkuil

Apr 4, 2019, 1:37 pm Reply

Seriously Michael E. Porter, Clayton M. Christensen, Robert S. Kaplan and Rita Gunther McGarth are soo inspiring! I can't get enough of their content honestly.

Ningyuan Xu

May 5, 2019, 8:27 pm Reply

I found this professor speaks very much like the Chinese
entrepreneur Jack Ma lol.


May 5, 2019, 11:52 pm Reply

He reminds me of Mr. Humphreys from, "Are You Being Served?" Are you free?

Pablo Gulías

May 5, 2019, 6:43 pm Reply

3:43 did he just say they have a lot of clout?

M Ra

Jul 7, 2019, 1:50 pm Reply

well, supposedly teaching at Harvard means you are a genious. What i see in this guy as a Person is a covert narcissist with a slight sociopathic streak…

Zachary Breen

Jul 7, 2019, 10:20 am Reply

I wish this was in a higher quality than 240p


Aug 8, 2019, 8:54 am Reply

Absolute badman on the business school scene. Mad respect to this brute.


Aug 8, 2019, 10:03 pm Reply

Obviously, this guy hasn't met the Kardashians. Everything that they have done to earn money goes against what this guy says.

Jaykesh awal

Aug 8, 2019, 2:15 pm Reply

Did he even himself understand the concept well? He is not even able to aptly explain how it can be applied in real world. He is keeping going round and round same as theory. If i had to explain this in my class, sir is gonna screw me hard.

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